aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) – a type of drug used to reduce inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease including balsalazide, mesalazine, oslalazine and sulphasalazine

anaemia – reduced number of red blood cells which carry oxygen around the body often causing fatigue due to poor intake or absorption of vitamins and iron

anal fissure – a crack or split in the skin around the anus which is often painful when passing stools

biopsy – when a small piece of tissue is taken from the body for examination under a microscope

bowels – another name for the intestines

budesonide – a corticosteroid drug which can reduce the inflammation in the intestine, can be given orally or through the rectum as an enema

cannula – a thin tube inserted into a veinto administer medication, drain off fluid, or insert a surgical instrument

chronic – an illness or disease continues for a long time, often years

ciclosporin – an immunosuppressant drug used in sever cases of UC, as a last resort to avoid surgery or put it off as long as possible

colectomy – surgical removal of the colon

colitis – inflammation of the colon

colon – another word for the large intestine, the main function of the colon is to absorb water from undigested food waste to form a normal stool

colonoscopy – an examination of the rectum, colon and last part of the small intestine using a narrow tube with a camera in its tip which is inserted through the anus

commode – a chair with a bowl underneath so you can go to the toilet if you’re unable to make it to the bathroom from your bedside

corticosteroids – a group of hormones used as a drug treatment to control IBD, these include hydrocortisonebudesonide and prednisolone

diarrhoea – frequent and often urgent passing of loose or watery stools

dilated – widened

distension – an uncomfortable, swollen feeling in the abdomen often caused by gas or fluid in the intestines

echo cardio gram (ECG) – a test to check your hearts rhythm, and electrical activity by sticking sensors to different parts of the body

electrolytes – salts in the blood such as sodium, potassium and calcium

endoscopy – a general term for the examination of the inside of the body using a tube with a camera in its tip, which is inserted through the mouth or anus

enema – a liquid or foam inserted into the large bowel through the anus, for diagnosis or treatment

enteral nutrition – a specially designed, easily digestible but highly nutritional liquid food that is either taken by mouth or passed into the stomach though a nasogastric tube

erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) – a blood test used to test inflammation in the body

fatigue – persistent physical or mental exhaustion that is more than normal sleepiness

full blood count (FBC) – a blood test that measure the red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and the platelet count; it is used to detect inflammation and anaemia

ferritin test – a blood test specifically designed to test the levels of iron in the body

flatus – gas from the stomach or bowels let out through the rectum or stoma

flexible sigmoidoscopy – an endoscopy of the final parts of the digestive system, the rectum and sigmoid colon